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Timeline

Timeline

The Peninsular Campaign

1807
French troops enter Spain en route to Portugal

Junot crosses into Spain with 28,000 troops.[2] The Treaty of Fontainebleau, to be signed later that month, stipulates that three columns of Spanish troops numbering 25,500 men will support the Invasion of Portugal. Junot enters Portugal 19 November.

Treaty of Fontainebleau signed by Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France

The accord proposed the division of the Kingdom of Portugal and all Portuguese dominions between the signatories.

Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil

The Royal Court of Portugal, headed by the Prince Regent, Prince John and his mother, Maria I of Portugal, set sail for Brazil, escorted by the British Royal Navy, led by Sir Sidney Smith and Sir Graham Moore (younger brother of Sir John Moore).

Junot occupies Lisbon

Junot occupies Lisbon

1808
Junot dissolves the Regency Council and disbands the Portuguese army.

The Portuguese Legion, comprising 6,000 Portuguese soldiers, sent to France.

Abdication: Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favour of his son, Ferdinand VII

Abdication: Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favour of his son, Ferdinand VII

Murat enters Madrid

In his letter to his brother Louis, dated 27 March 1808, offering him the throne of Spain, Napoleon stated that he had 100,000 troops in Spain, and that 40,000 of them had entered Madrid with Murat on 23 March 1808.

Dos de Mayo Uprising

Following the fighting at the Royal Palace, rebellion spread to other parts of the city, with street fighting in different areas including heavy fighting around the Puerta del Sol, the Puerta de Toledo and at the barracks of Monteleón. Martial law was imposed on the city. Hundreds of people died in the…Read More

Porto (Uprising of)

On hearing of the rebellion in Spain, Spanish General Belesta, having participated in the Invasion of Portugal, and stationed in Porto with 6,000 Spanish troops, captures the French General of Division Quesnel, and marches to Coruña to join the fight against the French troops, sparking off a series of uprisings throughout the north…Read More

Coronation of Joseph I

Napoleon’s elder brother, Joseph Bonaparte, proclaimed King of Spain.[6] His reign lasted until 11 December 1813, when he abdicated and returned to France after the French defeat at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813.

Vedel marches from Toledo

Vedel, with the 6,000 men, 700 horse, and 12 guns of the 2nd Division, sets out south from Toledo to force a passage over the Sierra Morena, hold the mountains from the guerrillas, and link up with Dupont, pacifying Castile-La Mancha along the way. Vedel is joined during the march…Read More

Medina de Rioseco (Battle of)

Also known as the Battle of Moclín, from the name of a nearby hill held by Spanish infantry.

Bailén (Battle of)

Having lost some 2,000 men on the battlefield, together with some 800 Swiss troops that had gone over to Reding’s Swiss regiment, Dupont called for a truce, formally surrendered his remaining 17,600 men on 23 July. Under the terms of surrender, Dupont, Vedel and their troops were to be repatriated…Read More

Roliça (Battle of)

The first battle fought by the British army during the Peninsular War.

Vimeiro (Battle of)

Led to the signing of the Convention of Sintra on 30 August 1808, putting an end to Napoleon’s invasion of Portugal.

Sintra (Convention of)

Following his victory at the Battle of Vimeiro (21 August) Sir Arthur Wellesley, against his wishes, was ordered by his immediate superiors, Sir Harry Burrard and Sir Hew Dalrymple, to sign the preliminary Armistice. The subsequent convention, agreed between Dalrymple and Kellerman, and despite the protests of the Portuguese commander, Freire,[10] allowed the evacuation of Junot’s 20,900 troops from Portugal…Read More

Tudela (Battle of)

Tudela (Battle of)

Somosierra (Battle of)

Famous for the Polish light cavalry uphill charge, in columns of four, against Spanish artillery positions. The heavily outnumbered Spanish detachment of conscripts and artillery were unable to stop the Grande Armée’s advance on Madrid, and Napoleon entered the capital of Spain on 4 December, a month after entering the country.

Napoleon enters Madrid with 80,000 troops

Napoleon turns his troops against Moore’s British forces, who are forced to retreat back towards Galicia three weeks later and, after a last stand at theBattle of Corunna in January 1809, withdraw from Spain.

Zaragoza (Second siege of)

Zaragoza (Second siege of) Zaragoza (Second siege of) 

Sahagún (Battle of)

Sahagún (Battle of)

Retreat to Corunna

John Moore starts a 250-mile (400 km) retreat and reaches La Coruña on 14 January

1809
Corunna (Battle of)

The British troops were able to complete their embarkation, but left the port cities of Corunna and Ferrol, as well as the whole of northern Spain, to be captured and occupied by the French. During the battle, Sir John Moore, the British commander, was mortally wounded

Beresford appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army.

British General William Beresford appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army.

Creation of Anglo-Portuguese Army

Wellesley, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army and integrated the two armies into mixed British-Portuguese divisions, normally on a basis of two British and one Portuguese brigades.

Porto (Second battle of)

Also known as the Battle of the Douro. 

Talavera (Battle of)

Talavera (Battle of)   

Torres Vedras (Wellington orders construction of the Lines of)

Wellington orders construction of the Lines. Under the direction of Sir Richard Fletcher, the first line was finished one year later, around the time of the Battle of Sobral. 

Alba de Tormes (Battle of)

Alba de Tormes (Battle of)

1810
Cádiz (Siege of)

The reconstituted national government of Spain, known as the Cádiz Cortes—effectively a government-in-exile—fortified itself in Cádiz, besieged by 70,000 French troops.

Ciudad Rodrigo (First siege of)

Ciudad Rodrigo (First siege of) 

River Côa (Battle of the)

After having blown up the Real Fuerte de la Concepción on 20 July, Craufurd, positioned his Light Brigade, comprising five battalions of infantry, two light cavalry regiments, and one horse artillery battery (about 4200 infantry, 800 cavalry, and 6 guns)[23] east of the Côa River (disobeying Wellington’s orders), near Castelo…Read More

Almeida (First siege of)

Almeida (First siege of) 

La Bisbal (Battle of)

La Bisbal (Battle of)

Cádiz Cortes – opening session

  The opening session of the Cortes was held eight months into the two-and-a-half-year Siege of Cádiz. 

Bussaco (Battle of)

Serra do Bussaco mountain range

Trant’s Raid

Coimbra is recaptured by Portuguese militia led by Nicholas Trant.

Sobral (Battle of)

Sobral (Battle of)   

1811
Badajoz (First siege of)

The Spanish fortress fell to the French forces under Marshal Soult. 

Barrosa (Battle of)

Barrosa (Battle of) 

Badajoz (Third siege of)

Badajoz (Third siege of) 

Campo Maior (Battle of) 

Campo Maior (Battle of)  Mon, 25 Mar 1811 00:01:00 GMT

Sabugal (Battle of)

Sabugal (Battle of) 

Almeida (Second siege of)

Also known as the Blockade of Almeida, since the Anglo-Portuguese Army had no heavy guns to breach the walls, they were forced to starve the garrison out. Because of this, it was technically a blockade rather than a siege. French troops abandoned the fort under cover of darkness and escaped.…Read More

Fuentes de Oñoro (Battle of)

  Spanish village on the border with Portugal. French failure to relieve Almeida. See Blockade of Almeida. 

Albuera (Battle of)

Allied forces engaged the French Armée du Midi (Army of the South) some 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Badajoz. 

Badajoz (Second siege of)

The siege was briefly lifted while the Battle of Albuera was fought on 16 May.   

Usagre (Battle of)

  Usagre (Battle of) 

1812
Ciudad Rodrigo (Second siege of)

  Ciudad Rodrigo (Second siege of) 

Altafulla (Battle of)

Altafulla (Battle of)