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The Peninsular Campaign

October 12

French troops enter Spain en route to Portugal

Junot crosses into Spain with 28,000 troops.[2] The Treaty of Fontainebleau, to be signed later that month, stipulates that three columns of Spanish troops numbering 25,500 men will support the Invasion of Portugal. Junot enters Portugal 19 November.
October 27

Treaty of Fontainebleau signed by Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France

The accord proposed the division of the Kingdom of Portugal and all Portuguese dominions between the signatories.
November 29

Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil

The Royal Court of Portugal, headed by the Prince Regent, Prince John and his mother, Maria I of Portugal, set sail for Brazil, escorted by the British Royal Navy, led by Sir Sidney Smith and Sir Graham Moore (younger brother of Sir John Moore).
November 30

Junot occupies Lisbon

Junot occupies Lisbon
February 1

Junot dissolves the Regency Council and disbands the Portuguese army.

The Portuguese Legion, comprising 6,000 Portuguese soldiers, sent to France.
March 19

Abdication: Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favour of his son, Ferdinand VII

Abdication: Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favour of his son, Ferdinand VII
March 23

Murat enters Madrid

In his letter to his brother Louis, dated 27 March 1808, offering him the throne of Spain, Napoleon stated that he had 100,000 troops in Spain, and that 40,000 of them had entered Madrid with Murat on 23 March 1808.
May 2

Dos de Mayo Uprising

Following the fighting at the Royal Palace, rebellion spread to other parts of the city, with street fighting in different areas including heavy fighting around the Puerta del Sol, the Puerta de Toledo and at the barracks of Monteleón. Martial law was imposed on the city. Hundreds of people died in the..Read More
June 6

Porto (Uprising of)

On hearing of the rebellion in Spain, Spanish General Belesta, having participated in the Invasion of Portugal, and stationed in Porto with 6,000 Spanish troops, captures the French General of Division Quesnel, and marches to Coruña to join the fight against the French troops, sparking off a series of uprisings throughout the north..Read More
June 6

Coronation of Joseph I

Napoleon’s elder brother, Joseph Bonaparte, proclaimed King of Spain.[6] His reign lasted until 11 December 1813, when he abdicated and returned to France after the French defeat at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813.
June 19

Vedel marches from Toledo

Vedel, with the 6,000 men, 700 horse, and 12 guns of the 2nd Division, sets out south from Toledo to force a passage over the Sierra Morena, hold the mountains from the guerrillas, and link up with Dupont, pacifying Castile-La Mancha along the way. Vedel is joined during the march..Read More
July 14

Medina de Rioseco (Battle of)

Also known as the Battle of Moclín, from the name of a nearby hill held by Spanish infantry.
July 16

Bailén (Battle of)

Having lost some 2,000 men on the battlefield, together with some 800 Swiss troops that had gone over to Reding‘s Swiss regiment, Dupont called for a truce, formally surrendered his remaining 17,600 men on 23 July. Under the terms of surrender, Dupont, Vedel and their troops were to be repatriated..Read More
August 17

Roliça (Battle of)

The first battle fought by the British army during the Peninsular War.
August 21

Vimeiro (Battle of)

Led to the signing of the Convention of Sintra on 30 August 1808, putting an end to Napoleon’s invasion of Portugal.
August 30

Sintra (Convention of)

Following his victory at the Battle of Vimeiro (21 August) Sir Arthur Wellesley, against his wishes, was ordered by his immediate superiors, Sir Harry Burrard and Sir Hew Dalrymple, to sign the preliminary Armistice. The subsequent convention, agreed between Dalrymple and Kellerman, and despite the protests of the Portuguese commander, Freire,[10] allowed the evacuation of Junot‘s 20,900 troops from Portugal..Read More
November 23

Tudela (Battle of)

Tudela (Battle of)
November 30

Somosierra (Battle of)

Famous for the Polish light cavalry uphill charge, in columns of four, against Spanish artillery positions. The heavily outnumbered Spanish detachment of conscripts and artillery were unable to stop the Grande Armée‘s advance on Madrid, and Napoleon entered the capital of Spain on 4 December, a month after entering the country.
December 4

Napoleon enters Madrid with 80,000 troops

Napoleon turns his troops against Moore‘s British forces, who are forced to retreat back towards Galicia three weeks later and, after a last stand at theBattle of Corunna in January 1809, withdraw from Spain.
December 20

Zaragoza (Second siege of)

Zaragoza (Second siege of) Zaragoza (Second siege of) 
December 21

Sahagún (Battle of)

Sahagún (Battle of)
December 25

Retreat to Corunna

John Moore starts a 250-mile (400 km) retreat and reaches La Coruña on 14 January
January 16

Corunna (Battle of)

The British troops were able to complete their embarkation, but left the port cities of Corunna and Ferrol, as well as the whole of northern Spain, to be captured and occupied by the French. During the battle, Sir John Moore, the British commander, was mortally wounded
March 7

Beresford appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army.

British General William Beresford appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army.
April 22

Creation of Anglo-Portuguese Army

Wellesley, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army and integrated the two armies into mixed British-Portuguese divisions, normally on a basis of two British and one Portuguese brigades.
May 12

Porto (Second battle of)

Also known as the Battle of the Douro. 
September 27

Talavera (Battle of)

Talavera (Battle of)   
October 20

Torres Vedras (Wellington orders construction of the Lines of)

Wellington orders construction of the Lines. Under the direction of Sir Richard Fletcher, the first line was finished one year later, around the time of the Battle of Sobral. 
November 26

Alba de Tormes (Battle of)

Alba de Tormes (Battle of)
February 5

Cádiz (Siege of)

The reconstituted national government of Spain, known as the Cádiz Cortes—effectively a government-in-exile—fortified itself in Cádiz, besieged by 70,000 French troops.
April 26

Ciudad Rodrigo (First siege of)

Ciudad Rodrigo (First siege of) 
July 24

River Côa (Battle of the)

After having blown up the Real Fuerte de la Concepción on 20 July, Craufurd, positioned his Light Brigade, comprising five battalions of infantry, two light cavalry regiments, and one horse artillery battery (about 4200 infantry, 800 cavalry, and 6 guns)[23] east of the Côa River (disobeying Wellington’s orders), near Castelo..Read More
July 25

Almeida (First siege of)

Almeida (First siege of) 
September 14

La Bisbal (Battle of)

La Bisbal (Battle of)
September 24

Cádiz Cortes – opening session

  The opening session of the Cortes was held eight months into the two-and-a-half-year Siege of Cádiz. 
September 27

Bussaco (Battle of)

Serra do Bussaco mountain range
October 6

Trant’s Raid

Coimbra is recaptured by Portuguese militia led by Nicholas Trant.
October 13

Sobral (Battle of)

Sobral (Battle of)   
January 26

Badajoz (First siege of)

The Spanish fortress fell to the French forces under Marshal Soult. 
March 5

Barrosa (Battle of)

Barrosa (Battle of) 
March 16

Badajoz (Third siege of)

Badajoz (Third siege of) 
March 25

Campo Maior (Battle of) 

Campo Maior (Battle of)  Mon, 25 Mar 1811 00:01:00 GMT
April 3

Sabugal (Battle of)

Sabugal (Battle of) 
April 14

Almeida (Second siege of)

Also known as the Blockade of Almeida, since the Anglo-Portuguese Army had no heavy guns to breach the walls, they were forced to starve the garrison out. Because of this, it was technically a blockade rather than a siege. French troops abandoned the fort under cover of darkness and escaped...Read More
May 3

Fuentes de Oñoro (Battle of)

  Spanish village on the border with Portugal. French failure to relieve Almeida. See Blockade of Almeida. 
May 16

Albuera (Battle of)

Allied forces engaged the French Armée du Midi (Army of the South) some 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Badajoz. 
May 18

Badajoz (Second siege of)

The siege was briefly lifted while the Battle of Albuera was fought on 16 May.   
May 25

Usagre (Battle of)

  Usagre (Battle of) 
January 7

Ciudad Rodrigo (Second siege of)

  Ciudad Rodrigo (Second siege of) 
January 24

Altafulla (Battle of)

Altafulla (Battle of)