The Waterloo Association: Members Area

Led to the abdication of Napoleon’s brother, Joseph Bonaparte, King of Spain, 11 December 1813. Beethoven‘s Op. 91, “Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria“, completed in the first week of October 1813, commemorates the victory. Originally composed for the panharmonicon, it was first performed with Beethoven himself conducting, together with the premiere of his […]
Mountain pass at 1,057 m (3,468 ft) on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees near the border with France. A battle included in the Battle of the Pyrenees. 
The Battle of the Pyrenees was large-scale offensive, involving several battles, launched by Marshal Soult to relieve the French garrisons under siege at Pamplona and San Sebastián. 
Also known as the Battle of Arapiles, for the name of the nearby village, Arapiles, which in turn takes its name from the two low, flat-topped hills, Arapil Chico (Lesser Arapile) and Arapil Grande (Greater Arapile), over and around which part of the battle took place. 
Also known as the Blockade of Almeida, since the Anglo-Portuguese Army had no heavy guns to breach the walls, they were forced to starve the garrison out. Because of this, it was technically a blockade rather than a siege. French troops abandoned the fort under cover of darkness and escaped. See Battle of Fuentes de […]
The reconstituted national government of Spain, known as the Cádiz Cortes—effectively a government-in-exile—fortified itself in Cádiz, besieged by 70,000 French troops.
After having blown up the Real Fuerte de la Concepción on 20 July, Craufurd, positioned his Light Brigade, comprising five battalions of infantry, two light cavalry regiments, and one horse artillery battery (about 4200 infantry, 800 cavalry, and 6 guns)[23] east of the Côa River (disobeying Wellington’s orders), near Castelo de Almeida and near the […]
Having lost some 2,000 men on the battlefield, together with some 800 Swiss troops that had gone over to Reding‘s Swiss regiment, Dupont called for a truce, formally surrendered his remaining 17,600 men on 23 July. Under the terms of surrender, Dupont, Vedel and their troops were to be repatriated to France. However, with the […]
Wellesley, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army and integrated the two armies into mixed British-Portuguese divisions, normally on a basis of two British and one Portuguese brigades.