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The Journal of Captain Edward Keane 7th Light Dragoons.

He had previously served as a Captain in the 23rd Foot Regiment, but transferred to the 7th Light Dragoons on 15 June 1809. He served in the peninsula from August 1813 to April 1814, so it would appear that he wrote in two sequential journals, but we now only have the second covering the last few months of the war. From December 1813 Keane served on the staff of Lieutenant Colonel Vivian.


February, 1814

9          Hasparren, Hervey of the 14th[1] came to see us.

10         Hasparren

11         Col. V[ivian][2], Col. Taylor[3], Hervey & myself rode to Let [Helette?], dined with General Barnes[4], drank too much.

12         Returned to Hasparren, a large party at dinner, Taylor, Hervey, Thornhill[5], Fraser [6]&c.

Sir R. Hill’s corps[7] moved to the right preparatory to an advance.

13         –

14         The 2nd & 3rd Division’s with General Fane’s[8] Brigade of cavalry advanced this day, the French retired without much opposition, Colonel V[ivian]’s Brigade not moved yet.

15         Not yet moved from Hasparren the French still retiring. Rode to Ayherre, with Campbell[9] to look for a quarter for the colonel & also for the brigade, rode on to the front, came up with the 3rd Division but did not see John, did not get home until considerably after dark.

16         The brigade moved to Ayherre.

17         Moved to Bardos, rode on to Bidache, went to see the chateau belonging to Grammont’s[10] father, which the French had partly fortified as a tete de pont, returned to Bardos, found the bridge & went over the Bidouze.

18         –

19         –

20         Sir L. Cole[11] came to Bardos & turned us out of our house, went into another about a mile from the town.

21         –

22         Col. V[ivian] with the 10th Hussars attended Marshal Bereford[12] in a reconnaissance of Hastingues, returned to Bardos.

23         The 7th Division supported by Col V[ivian]’s Brigade crossed the bridge at Bidache, drove the French out of Hastingues & Oeyregave, across the Gave to Peyrehorade. Went to Came to dinner & for the night. 1st Hussars to Arancou & 18th to the farmhouses near Came.

24         The brigade moved to Bastide de Bearn. Col. V[ivian] & myself rode on to Sauveterre [de-Bearn], found the light troops of the 3rd Division engaged, my brother[13] had his pony wounded, I went to the 7th for a farrier & had the ball taken out, returned to Bastide for the night, the French sentries fired at us across the river, both going & coming.

25        The brigade forded the Gave d’Oleron, 2 squadrons at headquarters Cassaber, got into a capital chateau today, famous good wine & apartments, the people civil beyond measure.

26         Marched to Lahontan & forded the Gave de Pau, got into the main road from Bayonne to Pau immediately, fell in with a picquet of the 15th French Chasseurs at Puyoo, chased them through the village & took a few prisoners. Remained in Puyoo for the night. Saw the Grand Lord, he ordered up the 4th & 7th Divisions on the main road to Orthes, the whole of the French collected there.

27         The whole army moved this morning towards the heights of Orthes, we moved off the high road to the left, up to the heights of the village of Saint Boes, which was attacked by the 4th Division & supported by the 7th Division. We were in reserve, ready to take advantage of the enemy’s confusion, but no opportunity offered I am sorry to say. The high road from Dax to Orthes runs through Saint Boes, on which our troops debouched from the village after a good deal of fighting immediately on the enemy’s right flank. The attack was I believe as follows, Sir R. Hill on the right, with the 2nd Division & Portuguese 13 & 14 Lt Dragoons, Sir T. Picton[14] with the 3rd & 5th Division in the centre, the light on their left with the 7, 10 & 15 Hussars. Marshal Beresford on the left with the 4 & 7 Divisions & 1st & 18th Hussars, after some hard fighting, the French retreated at all points, followed up as far as Sault-de-Navailles, when night put an end to the pursuit. We were then halted, the troops were bivouacked & the Col. put up in a farmhouse near the village of Bonnegarde. The 7th took about 500 prisoners today, poor Thornhill & Heyliger[15] wounded.

28         Moved on again this morning keeping the high road to Bordeaux on our right, saw nothing of the enemy until we arrived at Montaut where we halted for the night, we then perceived them on the other side of the river & found from our potholes that they were still in Saint Sever.




  1. Rode with Campbell to St Sever, as we supposed after Col. V[ivian], but he did not go there however, I learned that the 3rd Division were in the neighbourhood, & I went to see John. I found him quite well & with a whole skin & bones as well as myself after my near breaking my neck a few minutes before, from a most confounded fall of my horse from locking his hind & fore shoes in each other, which occasioned his coming right over & over. After recovering a little & taking leave of John once more, I returned to the ford of Montaul despairing of meeting the brigadier, when I found the brigade crossing the Adour, with the Light Division arriving at the village of Cauna on the right bank of the river. I then fell in with him, in about half an hour after, we fell in with our baggage after being only 4 days without a clean shirt & one horse all the time, which was the worst, I mounted a fresh horse & we then went on to Mont de Marsan, where the Colonel’s brigade with the Light & 7th Divisions were put up for the night, we got into a very good house, the people civil beyond measure, we all dined with the marshal at 8 o’clock.
  2. A halt this day, much wanted to our wearied limbs, wrote to my father for the first time since the army moved, it being the first opportunity. Dined at home.
  3. Commenced our march this morning, with the Light & 7th Divisions for Grenade, halted on the road & ordered back. The Light went on, sent back by Col. V[ivian], to Mont de Marsan to occupy our old quarters, when about half an hour, returned. Received an order from Col V[ivian] to join him as the brigade was not to return, but to occupy the villages on the left of the Grenade road, a pleasant hearing for me, having been already wet through, likely to be so a second time & into the Langain, not knowing where to find Colonel V[ivian], however the Brigade Major & myself started for the second time & after about two hours riding found him just before dark having got completely soaked.
  4. No move today for the brigade, rode with the colonel to Mont de Marsan about two miles distance, called on Marshal Beresford. Went & looked at the guillotine. Went then to the prefect’s house, found a print of Bonaparte’s marriage with Maria Louisa directed to the prefect, which I made free with & brought away. Found a case of Bordeaux, very good indeed, of which we got 4 bottles only. Returned home to dinner, Major Hughes[16] & his Adjutant dined with the colonel.
  5. The brigade (with the exception of one squadron of the 18th left at Mont de Marsan) marched to Villeneuve [de Marsan] this morning, got into rather a better house than our last, the town not very large, but tolerably good for the size & pleasantly situated. Our host uncommonly civil, gives us a capital bottle of wine every day. Col. Arentschildt[17] & Major Gruben[18] Dined with Col. V[ivian].
  6. No move today. English papers arrived, no news, Capt. Aly[19] & Burke[20] Dined with Col. V[ivian].
  7. No move in the brigade today. More newspapers arrived and a letter from P__ which I ought to have got before the last one. Capt. Schaumann?[21] & Lieutenant Behrens[22] dined with Col. V[ivian]. The French horses which we took on the 24th of last month was sold today by auction in the street of Villeneuve.
  8. The brigade marched this morning, at ½ past 8 o’clock am for Roquefort where we arrived about 11, the 7th Division arrived also, nothing remarkable in this place but an old castle, the country dreadful between this & Villeneuve. Dined at the auberge where we were quartered, had a French dinner.
  9. Started this morning at 4 o’clock for Captieux, uncommonly cold with snow, Captieux rather a miserable place. Quartered in the auberge again today, all dined with the marshal.
  10. Arrived at Langon, very cold morning, passed through Bazas, a very good town, the people appeared astonished to see us. This town (Langon) beautifully situated on the Garonne.
  11. Arrived at Beautiran on the Bordeaux side of Castres, quartered in the mayor’s house.
  12. Entered Bordeaux, at half past 10 o’clock to the great joy of the people (to all appearance), they hoisted the white flag & white cockades & made the air resound again with ‘Vive le Roi, Vive les Anglais’. Dined with the marshal, went to the theatre & there received with the greatest acclamations of joy.
  13. Dined with Mons. Rabba, the owner of our house No.41 Fosses St Eloy. This is certainly a most superb town as I ever was in, in my life. Dinner at 3 o’clock & went to the play. The Duke D’Angouleme was there, ‘God Save the King’ & ‘Vive le Roi’ all night.
  14. Wrote to my lady, dined at home.
  15. Bordeaux, dined at home.
  16. Left Bordeaux to our very great regret & mortification, to join Lord Wellington again in consequence of Soult being reinforced by Suchet. We follow the 4th Division, the 7th Division with part of the 12th [Light] Dragoons left at Bordeaux. Halted at Barsac for the night.
  17. To Bazas this day, where we dined with the Marshal [Beresford]. We heard of Bonaparte’s being defeated.
  18. Roquefort, no news, dined at the same auberge we did when going to Bordeaux.
  19. Barcelonne [sur-Gers], Marshal B[eresford] left us here for L[or]d W[ellington]’s H[ea]d Q[uarter]s. Dined at Col.’s quarters, a miserable place.
  20. To Plaisance, on our arrival the Col. V[ivian] received an order for the brigade to move on to Rabastens [de-Bigorre] after halting for an hour. Col. V[ivian] & my [sic] rode on from Plaisance, overtook the 7th on the road, saw Thornhill for the first time since his misfortunes. Went on to Rabasten, was then sent back after being very tired, to halt the brigade, but fortunately met the Brigade Major before I went very far & sent back an orderly. Saw a good deal of skirmishing at a distance, the result was the French run away. Dined with Sir L[owry] Cole.
  21. Nothing of consequence today. The army advancing, Head Quarters at Tournay. Turned out a wet afternoon, rather unpleasant. In the best house in the village but bad was the halt, dined at house.
  22. La Pere. Cold day with rain, left the 4th Division at Tue [Tournay?] got into the mayor’s house, a very civil man, he gave us the best brandy I ever tasted.
  23. Nouigau[?], passed the 3rd & 4th Divisions on the road to Boulogne. Saw John, very well. Turned off the main road.
  24. Sauvimont today, a village near Lombez, the brigade a good deal scattered, put up in the mayor’s house, a very civil man, he dined with us, as also a young man who lost his leg at the Battle of Wagram, he was adc to General Tol.
  25. Sabonneres, a most uncommon bad road today all the way, thank God we had not far to go, bad weather also this morning.
  26. Rain all day, got into the high road at last, quartered in an auberge, the ‘Golden Eagle’. The 1st Hussars [KGL] fell in with the advance of the enemy from Toulouse & drove them back to St Martin du Touch, 4 leagues Toulouse.
  27. Colomiers, in sight of Toulouse at last, a beautiful looking town, the Light Division drove the enemy out of Tournefeuille across the river to our right. Dined with our patron who speaks English, Mons Faslaubon.
  28. Breakfasted at ½ past five this morning, the whole of the infantry moved to the right to pass the Garonne above the town, there were not sufficient number of boats so they returned again. We were left on the main road running through St Martin du Touch, the French cavalry retired about 9 o’clock, we followed them through the village, but the bridge was blocked up, a few dismounted men cleared, we the[n] galloped the 10th Chasseurs under their guns. The infantry then occupied the position that we took & we went back to our old qtrs.
  29. No move today. Wet weather again, wrote to my lady, dined at home.
  30. Rode along the outposts with Sir L[owry] Cole & the Colonel, I returned by John’s quarters, stopped with him for an hour, returned home & dined with the marshal.
  31. Still no move, went to see General Compan’s chateau. Lord W[ellington] recconoitered the enemy this afternoon, dined at home.



  1. Up at 5 o’clock this morning at the alarm post, expected to be attacked, but were made all April fool’s of by Soult. Rode down the river with Sir T[homas] Picton & Col V[ivian] to the chateau of Mons du Burgh, where we saw the finest orange trees I ever saw & most beautiful also. Dined at home.
  2. Rode to l’Isle Jourdain to see the 7th 4 leagues off, returned home & dined with the marshal.
  3. Lord W[ellington] & the marshal went to reconnoitre where the army should cross the river. Col V[ivian] ordered to attent and went off in a gallop, overtook them near Grenade. Malcay? & myself stopped there to lunch whilst Lord W[ellington] &c went on to Verdun [sur-Garonne], joined them again on their return, dined at home.
  4. Up this morning at ¼ past 2 o’clock am. 3 Divisions of the army & 3 brigades of cavalry crossed the Garonne. The bridge was commenced at daylight, the first troops began to cross about 9 o’clock. No opposition from the enemy. The infantry halted on the main road from Toulouse to Paris. Col. V[ivian]’s Brigade sent to Castelnau [d’Estretefonds], a very good house, the patron not at home.
  5. Went to St Jory to see John. Rode with him on the road to Toulouse, returned & sat with Ellis for some time, rode home to dinner.
  6. Expected a fight today, went part of the way to St Jory with Col. V[ivian] & Lord Charles Manners[23], returned with orders for the brigade to turn out & wait for orders. The Heavy Brigade fought here this morning at daylight much to their annoyance & remained on the road for the most part of the day. No more infantry have crossed the river and yet, the bridge was taken up yesterday in consequence of the very heavy rain & the river was so swollen that they were afraid it might perchance be carried away. We are here cut off from the rest of the army with only 3 divisions of infantry & 3 brigades of cavalry. We therefore expect to be attacked any moment, the Lord has been over this morning reconnoitring. The marshal, General D’Urban[24] & Hervey dined with us. No fight.
  7. The river so swollen that the bridge cannot be thrown across, the marshal still with us, no attack from the enemy as yet. Went to John, we both rode to the front & returned very soon. Dined at home, a large party of the marshal’s staff, a very good set out, considering all our baggage is on the other side of the Garonne.
  8. Up at daylight rode to the front, no stir on the front of the enemy. The bridge thrown over this morning, all the baggage & Spaniards came over. Received the order to move at 1 o’clock pm along the heights on the left of St Jory, support by the left brigade of the 4th We fell in with the enemy’s cavalry at the village of [Blank] where their advanced piquet was. A party of the 18th forced them through a village, killing one man & taking another prisoner, we then followed them close through the village of [Blank] halting for a short time on the top of a hill where the road comes in sight of Toulouse & the whole French position. The enemy had there collected a considerable number of cavalry when I was sent back for the whole of the 18th, who immediately came up & the order given to advance & in the act of charging when Col. V[ivian] received a shot in his arm which broke the bone. The 18th charged, beat the enemy & took many prisoners, Lord Wellington looking on.
  9. All tolerable quiet today, the enemy appear to be working as hard as they can on the heights on this side of Toulouse. Lord Wellington reconnoitred both positions for a long time this day. A little skirmishing on the river to our left in consequence of our sending some light troops to take possession of a bridge which the enemy occupied in the afternoon & blew it up at ½ past 5 o’clock. Col. V[ivian] as well as can be expected after so severe a wound & every hopes are entertained by all the medical men that his arm will be saved. Numerous visitors today, of all ranks, from a marshal downwards. In rather a bad house, obliged to dine in the kitchen.
  10. Lord Wellington attacked the enemy’s position this morning in front of Toulouse, it first commenced with the 3rd Division who fired the first shot at 7 o’clock am. The 4th & 6th Divisions commenced their attack soon after, by moving to their left after passing the bridge at the village of Croix d’Orade & turning the heights occupied by the enemy, which were strongly fortified as well as being uncommonly strong by nature. However, all the redoubts on the enemy’s right were carried by these two divisions with rather a severe loss. The enemy’s artillery did wonderful execution, the 42nd Regiment lost most severely in one redoubt which they took & were obliged to retreat from it after, not being supported in time, but they returned & retook it & kept it. The whole place was literally covered with their dead. The Spaniards gave way manfully at one redoubt, which the 6th Division was obliged to secure after the Spaniards had run. A great number of fine fellows killed & wounded today, our loss is most severe I am afraid owing to the nature of the ground, being almost the whole day under a most severe fire of round shot, grape & shells. A bloody day indeed from 7 o’clock in the morning until dark. I left the field at ½ past 6 o’clock pm & they were then at it, I was with the marshal almost the whole day. Returned with Campbell for dinner, found the Col. uncommonly well considering. Left the field with Lord Wellington, dined & went to bed after the fatigues of the day.
  11. Quiet today. Rode to the advanced parts of the Light Division, from thence to the 3rd Division to see John, who I found very well. His loss was not severe, I walked with [him] to his advanced posts to view the enemy’s works in his front, consisting of a large convent strongly barricade with a canal bridge also barricaded & planted with cannon. Walked home to his house, ate some cold beef, drank a glass of brandy & returned to the Col., found him in a state of improvement.
  12. Wrote to Eliza & my father. The French evacuated Toulouse last night, our troops took possession of all the bridges during the night & early this morning Lord W[ellington] entered the town this morning amidst the rejoicings of all the people. Sir R Hill & part of the cavalry gone in pursuit, the Colonel’s brigade also gone off, what a bore to be left behind. I rode into town today & much disappointed at the appearance of the town, nothing like Bordeaux, got quarters for the Col., viewed the bridge & the canal, both very fine & then returned home with Campbell to dinner.
  13. Went into Toulouse today in pursuit of John, found him at last, walked about town for some time, the glorious news of peace arrived last night by Marshal Ney’s adc accompanied by Col. Cooke[25]. The former was sent on this morning to Marshal Soult with the news in order to put an end to hostilities, but no answer was arrived before I left town. Asked to dinner by Sir E Pakenham[26] for tomorrow, bought two china cups for my lady. Rode home again today with Campbell, wrote to Eliza.
  14. John came out to see the colonel who is doing very well, rode back with John to dinner at Sir Edward Pakenham’s, went to Lord Wellington’s ball in the evening. Col. Cooke, who came from Paris to Lord W[ellington], dined with us & gave us a history of all what happened in the north. Soult rather obstinate, won’t listen to the proposition sent him by Marshal Ney. Slept at John’s.
  15. John & myself went immediately after breakfast out to bring Col. V[ivian] into town, 30 of John’s brigade brought him in & deposited him in his quarter, which is a very good, a famous suite of apartments. Dined at home & went to bed early.
  16. The col. not so well this morning as we could wish, a little feverish in consequence of cold yesterday coming into town. Walked about with John a little, found a nasty feverish cold & sore throat coming on, went home & went to bed very early.
  17. Not out of the house all day, still getting worse.
  18. Still confined, not able to eat.
  19. Nothing better today.
  20. Still very unwell & not able to eat. Sir C[harles] Stewart[27] called here this morning, he arrived from Paris last night. I wrote to Eliza by him, he starts again tonight back for Paris.
  21. Confined still to the house, not able to eat.
  22. My throat still bad & not able to eat or drink, never passed such uncomfortable nights in my life. Lord Wellington & Marshal Beresford came to see the col. today.
  23. Felt rather better this morning for the first time, ate a little & got on horseback & took a ride. Felt all the better on my return, could not get on at dinner at all, my throat still very bad.
  24. Much better this morning, ate a tolerable breakfast.
  25. Nearly well, dined with Col. Hope & went to Lord Wellington’s ball.
  26. At home, the Col. Doing well.
  27. Duke D’Angouleme[28] arrived, Lord W[ellington] went out to meet him. He went to church immediately, Te Deum was sung. Dined at home.
  28. A Grand Ball was given by the inhabitants of Toulouse to the Duke. I went there, dined at home. My first lesson in French today.
  29. Suchet[29] arrived here this evening, dined at home.
  30. Wrote to Mr V[ivian?] & to my father.


7          Wrote to Mr V[ivian?]

8          Sunday.

12         Got a letter from Eliza

14         Wrote to Eliza by Lord Hill

15         Duke of Wellington’s last ball.

17         Lord W[ellington] left Toulouse for Mont de Marsan. Dined at Sir E Pakenham’s.

18         Wrote to Eli; dined at Sir G[eorge] Murray’s[30], went to concert.

19        Took leave of John today previous to his departure for Bordeaux to embark for America.

22        Col. V[ivian] dined with us for the first time, got up at 3 o’clock, Dr Gunning dined with us, went to Sir E. Pakenham’s ball.

23         Dined at home at 4 o’clock, Col. V[ivian] dines with us, went to the play. 1st sitting for my

24         Col. V[ivian] doing very well, gets up & dines with us regularly.

27        S[ir] H[ussey] V[ivian] & G Ternbecke? Arrived this evening

28         Wrote to Eliza.

  • A party to dinner.

30         All the party went to Campbells, Burgh’s & Fremantle’s Ball[31].

31         Dined at home, the play in the evening.


  1. At home, a party to dinner.

2. At home, a very hot day, caught 3 more snails.

4. Head Quarters left Toulouse for Bordeaux.

5. French troops marched into Toulouse, part of Suchet’s army.

6. Left Toulouse for Bordeaux. Embarked at 12 o’clock in a boat to go down the Garonne. Col. V[ivian], Dr L Pulsford[32] & myself. A French doctor begged a passage, arrived at Verdun de Mais [sur Garonne] at 5 o’clock. Walked to Madame Hebras’ house.

7. A very wet day & rather unpleasant on the river, embarked this morning at ½ past 8 o’clock, arrived at Agen at ½ past 5 o’clock.

8. Day turned out rather wet, arrived at Marmande to dine & sleep.

9. Started at 8 o’clock, arrived at Langon at 1 o’clock, landed, walked up to see our old landlady, who was very glad to see us. Proceeded on our passage & got to Bordeaux at 7 o’clock pm. Walked to a traiteur to dine. Gunning[33], the Col., Pulsford & myself & then walked home to bed at our old friends Mrs Rabba’s.

10. Dined at a hotel near the playhouse.

11. Dined at home, had a party.

12. Dined at Sir E. Pakenham’s, went to the play & to the Duke’s Ball.

13. Dined at the Hotel de Providence, wrote to Eli.

14. Embarked on board the Fancy cutter[34] with Capt. Warner to go down the River Garonne to get on board his ship, the Clarence[35], who has given us a passage to England. A very fine day, Captain Bingham of the Egmont[36] his wife & daughter of the party. We got 15 miles down the river & anchored for the night, went on shore, took a walk. The Col & myself slept at an auberge by the river side, drank a bottle of claret for which we paid one frank [sic] & went to bed, left John at Bordeaux.

16. Went on board the Fancy this morning at ½ past 3 o’clock & started for the men of war. The tide against us, about 11 o’clock am, dropt our anchor, went on shore with Capt. Bingham his wife & daughter, took a walk, got some wine & water & went on board again, set sail again about 3 o’clock pm & reached the ships at 5. Went on board the Clarence in the barge of the Egmont, got a beef stake [sic], went to bed at ½ [past] 9 o’clock. The Fusiliers on board, had a dance & some supper.

17. Captain Warner arrived this morning, gave us a very good breakfast, rather a good fellow on board his ship, lives very well. Gave us a very good dinner.

18. The Zealous[37] sailed this morning, we remained at anchor. Capt. Rennie came on board & dined with Capt. Warren, a dance in the evening, to bed at ½ [past] 9 o’clock. Beatty[38] & I sleep in the same cabin.

19. Got under weigh this morning at daylight, got soon out of the Garonne & stood out to sea. Light winds, not very fair, dinner every day at ½ [past] 3 o’clock & breakfast at 8.

20. Clarence at sea, fine weather, the wind rather favourable than otherwise.

Landed at Plymouth the 27th of June from Bordeaux.

Strength of 6th Brigade of cavalry commanded by Major General Sir R. Hussey Vivian KCB at Waterloo 18 June 1815

10th Hussars                                          320

18th Hussars                                          320

1st German Dragoons                            430                               Total 1070


Killed & Wounded


10th                   27 Killed           40 Wounded

18th                   33 Killed           74 Wounded

1st                    –                      1 Officer 30 men

Horses wounded & killed           [Blank]


Sir R Gardiner’s Troop of Horse Artillery 12 men & 20 horses killed & wounded


Capt. Keane 7th Hussars  adc

Maj Harris, half pay,    Brigade Major

Lieut. Fitzroy, Blues, Extra adc

[1] Lieutenant Colonel Felton Bathurst Hervey, 14th Light Dragoons. He was later an aise de camp to the Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo.

[2] Lieutenant Colonel Sir Hussey Vivian commanded a brigade of cavalry in the peninsula.

[3] This must be Brevet Colonel John Taylor 88th Foot.

[4] Major General Edward Barnes commanded a brigade in the 2nd Division.

[5] Major William Thornhill 7th Light Dragoons.

[6] Captain James John Fraser 7th Light Dragoons.

[7] Lieutenant General Sir Rowland Hill commanded the 2nd Division throughout the Peninsular war.

[8] Major General Henry Fane commanded a cavalry brigade.

[9] Probably Major William Campbell Deputy Adjutant Quarter Master General.

[10] Captain A de Grammont, 10th Light Dragoons, later Duc de Guiche.

[11] Lieutenant Galbraith Lowry Cole commanded the 4th Division.

[12] Lieutenant Colonel William Carr Beresford was Field Marshal and Commander in Chief of the Portuguese Army.

[13] Brevet Colonel John Keane 60th Foot commanded a brigade in the 3rd Division.

[14] Lieutenant General Sir Thomas Picton commanded the 3rd Division.

[15] Captain Peter Augustus Heyliger 7th Light Dragoons was wounded at Orthes.

[16] Major James Hughes and his adjutant Lieutenant Duperier of the 18th Hussars.

[17] Lieutenant Colonel Victor von Arentschildt was serving with the Portuguese army.

[18] Major Philip Baron Gruben 1st Hussars KGL

[19] Captain Wilhelm Aly 1st Hussars KGL was appointed a major in the 2nd Hussars KGL in January 1814.

[20] Captain Edward Burke 18th Hussars.

[21] Captain Gustavus Schaumann 1st Hussars KGL

[22] Lieutenant Heinrich Behrens 1st Hussars KGL.

[23] Lieutenant Colonel Lord Charles Manners commanded a brigade of cavalry.

[24] Brevet Colonel Benjamin D’Urban,

[25] Major General Richard Harvey Cooke.

[26] Major General the honourable Edward Pakenham Adjutant General, was later killed at the Battle of New Orleans.

[27] Major General Charles Stewart later became the Marquis of Londonderry.

[28] Louis Antoine Duc d’Angouleme nephew of Louis XVIII.

[29] Marshal Louis Gabrielle Suchet, duc d’Albufera.

[30] Major General Sir George Murray, Quarter Master General.

[31] Brevet Lieutenant Colonels Ulysses Burgh and John Fremantle were both aide de camps of the Duke of Wellington.

[32] Assistant Surgeon Lucas Pulsford 18th Hussars.

[33] Lieutenant George Orlando Gunning 3rd Dragoons, later joined the 10th Light Dragoons and served with them at Waterloo.

[34] The hired cutter HMS Fancy of 10 guns.

[35] HMS Clarence of 74 guns, commanded by Captain Frederick Warren R.N.

[36] HMS Egmont of 74 guns, commanded by Captain Joseph Bingham R.N.

[37] HMS Zealous of 74 guns.

[38] This could be either Brevet Lieutenant Colonels John Beatty or William Beatty who had both served with the Portuguese army at the Battle of Toulouse.

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