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Opposing Forces and Plans

Napoleon

Napoleon’s plan at the start of the battle was to use his left flank to attack Hougoumont, drawing Wellington’s reserves into battle. Then the use of the massed artillery of his Grand Battery to weaken and demoralise the allied army. Followed by a large attack on his left, breaking the allied line, through which his cavalry would flow, flanking and cutting off the retreat of the Anglo-Dutch army.

The plan lacked the sophistication of many of his previous battles, being little more than a frontal assault, but if it worked then Wellington’s army would be defeated quickly, permanently parted from the Prussians and the road to Brussels would be open. However heavy rain the previous day caused a delay in starting the battle, buying the Allies precious time.

 

 

Arthur Wellesley, First Duke of Wellington
APSLEY HOUSE, London. ” Arthur Wellesley, First Duke of Wellington ” portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830).

Wellington

Wellington was already familiar with the ground at Waterloo, having previously visited it and determined it would be a good place to stand on the road to Brussels. Although he had decline to put up earthworks in case it revealed his intentions to the enemy. The position was quite favourable to the defence, the long running east-west ridge line provided cover and concealed the movement of troops. While the three farmhouses of Hougoumont, la Haye Sainte and Papelotte provide makeshift fortifications. Wellington famously told his second in command that his plan was to defeat the French, more than this he refused to say. The plan was simple, hold the line until the Prussians arrived, if they didn’t arrive, they were 17.000 men at Halle, 8 miles to the West who could cover the retreat and also protect the Waterloo position against a flanking march.

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher

Blucher

Blucher, after his defeat at Ligny had not retreated east as Napoleon had hoped, but rather fell back to the North thus maintaining his link with Wellington. With his III Corps holding the pursing French at bay, Blucher would send 3 corps west to join Wellington’s army, it was on the strength of this promise that Wellington decided to make his stand at Waterloo. In the van would be IV Corps, at full strength not having taken part in the Battle of Ligny. The Prussian advance guard would make contact with the French about 15.00.

 

Orders of Battle

Napoleon’s Army of the North 73,000 approx (does not included detached force such as Grouchy)

Imperial Guard Drouot

Division of Foot Grenadiers Friant
Old Guard
1st Grenadiers (Petit)
2nd Grenadiers (Christiani)
Brigade of Middle Guard Roguet
3rd Grenadiers (Poret de Morvan)
4th Grenadiers (d’Harlet)
1 Battery of Guard Foot and 1 Battery of Guard Marine Foot Artillery
Division of Foot Chasseurs Morand
Old Guard
1st Chasseurs (Cambronne)
2nd Chasseurs (Pelet)
Brigade of Middle Guard Michel
3rd Chasseurs (Malet)
4th Chasseurs (Henrion)
1 Battery of Guard Foot and 1 Battery of Guard Marine Foot Artillery

Young Guard Division Duhesme 1st Brigade Chartrand
1st Tirailleurs (Malcolm)
1st Voltigeurs (Secretan)
2nd Brigade Baron Guye
3rd Tirailleurs (Pailhes)
3rd Voltigeurs (Hurel)
2 Batteries of Guard Marine Foot Artillery
Guard Light Cavalry Division Lefebvre-Desnouettes
Chasseurs a Cheval
2nd Chevau Legers
2 Batteries of Guard Horse Artillery
Guard Heavy Cavalry Division Guyot Grenadiers a Cheval
Dragoons of the Empress
Elite Gendarmes

I Corps d’Erlon
1st Infantry Division Quiot du Passage
1st Brigade Charlet
54th Ligne Regiment
55th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Bourgeois
28th Ligne Regiment
105th Ligne Regiment

2nd Infantry Division Donzelot
1st Brigade Schmitz
13th Legere Regiment
17th Legere Regiment
2nd Brigade Aulard
19th Ligne Regiment
51st Ligne Regiment

3rd Infantry Division Marcognet
1st Brigade Nogues
21st Ligne Regiment
46th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Grenier
25th Ligne Regiment
45th Ligne Regiment

4th Infantry Division Durutte
1st Brigade Pegot
8th Ligne Regiment
29th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Brue
85th Ligne Regiment
95th Ligne Regiment

1st Cavalry Division Jacquinot
1st Brigade Bruno
7th Hussars
3rd Chasseurs a Cheval
2nd Brigade Gobrecht
3rd Lancers
4th Lancers
5 Batteries of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

II Corps Reille

5th Infantry Division Bachelu
1st Brigade Husson
3rd Ligne Regiment
61st Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Campi
72nd Ligne Regiment
108th Ligne Regiment

6th Infantry Division Jerome Bonaparte
1st Brigade Bauduin
1st Legere Regiment
2nd Legere Regiment
2nd Brigade Soye
1st Ligne Regiment
2nd Ligne Regiment

7th Infantry Division Girard
1st Brigade Devilliers
11th Legere Regiment
82nd Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Piat
12th Legere Regiment
4th Ligne Regiment

9th Infantry Division Foy
1st Brigade Tissot
92nd Ligne Regiment
93rd Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Jamin
100th Ligne Regiment
4th Legere Regiment

2nd Cavalry Division Pire
1st Brigade Huber
1st Chasseurs a Cheval
6th Chasseurs a Cheval
2nd Brigade Wathiez
5th Lancers
6th Lancers
5 Batteries of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

III Corps Vandamme

8th Division Lefol
1st Brigade Billard
15th Legere Regiment
23rd Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Corsin
37th Ligne Regiment
64th Ligne Regiment

10th Division Habert
1st Brigade Gengoult
34th Ligne Regiment
88th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Dupeyroux
22nd Ligne Regiment
70th Ligne Regiment
2nd Foreign (Swiss) Regiment

11th Division Berthezene
1st Brigade Dufour
12th Ligne Regiment
56th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Lagarde
33rd Ligne Regiment
86th Ligne Regiment

3rd Cavalry Division Domon
1st Brigade Dommanget
4th Chasseurs a Cheval
9th Chasseurs a Cheval
2nd Brigade Vinot
12th Chasseurs a Cheval
4 Batteries of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

IV Corps Gerard

12th Division Pecheux
1st Brigade Rome
30th Ligne Regiment
96th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Schaeffer
6th Legere Regiment
63rd Ligne Regiment

13th Division Vichery
1st Brigade Le Capitaine
59th Ligne Regiment
76th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Desprez
48th Ligne Regiment
69th Ligne Regiment

14th Division Bourmont
Later Hulot
1st Brigade Hulot
9th Legere Regiment
111th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Toussaint
44th Ligne Regiment
50th Ligne Regiment

7th Light Cavalry Division Maurin
1st Brigade Vallin
6th Hussars
8th Chasseurs a Cheval
2nd Brigade Berruyer
6th Dragoons
11th Dragoons
15th Dragoons
16th Dragoons
4 Batteries of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

VI Corps Lobau

19th Division Simmer
1st Brigade Bellair
5th Ligne Regiment
11th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade Jamin
27th Ligne Regiment
84th Ligne Regiment

20th Division Jeanin
1st Brigade Bony
5th Legere Regiment
10th Ligne Regiment
2nd Brigade de Tromelin
107th Ligne Regiment
21st Division Teste
1st Brigade Lafitte
8th Legere Regiment
2nd Brigade Penne
65th Ligne Regiment
75th Ligne Regiment
4 Batteries of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

Reserve Cavalry Grouchy

I Reserve Cavalry Corps Pajol
4th Cavalry Division Soult
1st Brigade Saint-Laurent
1st Hussars
4th Hussars
2nd Brigade Ameil
5th Hussars

5th Cavalry Division Subervie
1st Brigade Colbert
1st Chevau-leger Lancers
2nd Chevau-leger Lancers
2nd Brigade Merlin
11th Chasseurs a Cheval
2 Batteries Horse Artillery

II Reserve Cavalry Corps Exelmans
9th Cavalry Division Strolz
1st Brigade Burthe
5th Dragoons
13th Dragoons
2nd Brigade Vincent
15th Dragoons
20th Dragoons

10th Cavalry Division Chastel
1st Brigade Bonnemains
4th Dragoons
12th Dragoons
2nd Brigade Berton
14th Dragoons
17th Dragoons
2 Batteries Horse Artillery

III Reserve Cavalry Corps Kellermann
11th Cavalry Division l’Heritier
1st Brigade Picquet
2nd Dragoons
7th Dragoons
2nd Brigade Guiton
8th Cuirassiers
11th Cuirassiers

12th Cavalry Division d’Hurbal
1st Brigade Blancard
1st Carabiniers
2nd Carabiniers
2nd Brigade Donop
2nd Cuirassiers
3rd Cuirassiers
2 Batteries Horse Artillery

IV Reserve Cavalry Corps Milhaud
13th Cavalry Division Watier
1st Brigade Dubois
1st Cuirassiers
4th Cuirassiers
2nd Brigade Travers
7th Cuirassiers
12th Cuirassiers

14th Cavalry Division Delort
1st Brigade Farine
5th Cuirassiers
10th Cuirassiers
2nd Brigade Vial
6th Cuirassiers
9th Cuirassiers
2 Batteries Horse Artillery

Wellington’s Allied Army 68,000 approx

I Corps Prince Of Orange

1st Division Cooke
1st Brigade Maitland
2nd & 3rd Battalions 1st Foot Guards
2nd Brigade Byng
2nd Battalion Coldstream Guards
2nd Battalion 3rd Foot Guards
1 Battery Foot Artillery and 1 Battery KGL Horse Artillery

3rd Division Alten
5th Brigade C. Halkett
2nd Battalion 30th Foot
33rd Foot
2nd Battalion 69th Foot
2nd Battalion 73rd Foot
2nd KGL Brigade Ompteda
1st Light Battalion KGL
2nd Light Battalion KGL
5th Line Battalion KGL
8th Line Battalion KGL

1st Hanoverian Brigade Kielmansegge
Osnabruck Field Battalion
Grubenhagen Field Battalion
Bremen Field Battalion
Verden Field Battalion
Luneburg Field Battalion
Jager Corps Two Companies
1 Battery Foot Artillery and 1 Battery Horse Artillery

2nd Netherlands Division Perponcher
1st Brigade Bijlandt
7th Line (Belgian)
27th Jager (Dutch)
5th Militia (Dutch)
7th Militia (Dutch)
8th Militia (Dutch)
2nd Brigade Saxe Weimar
2nd Nassau Regiment
28th Orange Nassau Regiment
1 Battery of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery
3rd Netherlands Division Chasse
1st Brigade Detmers
2nd Line (Dutch)
35th Jagers (Belgian)
4th Militia (Dutch)
6th Militia (Dutch)
17th Militia (Dutch)
19th Militia (Dutch)
2nd Brigade d’Aubreme
3rd Line (Belgian)
12th Line (Dutch)
13th Line (Dutch)
36th Jagers (Belgian)
3rd Militia (Dutch)
10th Militia (Dutch)
1 Battery of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

II Corps Lord Hill

2nd Division Clinton
3rd Brigade Adam
1st Battalion 52nd Foot
1st Battalion 71st Foot
2nd & 3rd Battalion 95th Foot
1st KGL Brigade de Plat
1st Line Battalion KGL
2nd Line Battalion KGL
3rd Line Battalion KGL
4th Line Battalion KGL
3rd Hanoverian Brigade H. Halkett
Bremervorde Landwehr Battalion
Osnabruck Landwehr Battalion
Quackenbruck Landwehr Battalion
Salzgitter Landwehr Battalion
1 Battery of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

Of the 4th Division, only the 4th Brigade was at Waterloo, the 6th Brigade being at Ath. The 4th Brigade was attached to Clinton’s 2nd Division during the Battle of Waterloo.

4th Division Colville
4th Brigade Mitchell
3rd Battalion 14th Foot
23rd Foot
1st Battalion 51st Foot
6th Brigade Johnstone
2nd Battalion 35th Foot
54th Foot
2nd Battalion 59th Foot
1st Battalion 91st Foot
6th Hanoverian Brigade Lyon
Lauenberg Field Battalion
Calenburg Field Battalion
Bentheim Landwehr Battalion
Nienberg Landwehr Battalion
Hoya Landwehr Battalion
1 Battery of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

1st Netherlands Division Stedman
1st Brigade d’Hauw
4th Line (Belgian)
6th Line (Dutch)
16th Jagers (Dutch)
9th Militia (Dutch)
14th Militia (Dutch)
15th Militia (Dutch)
1 Battery Foot Artillery
2nd Brigade Eerens
1st Line (Belgian)
18th Jager (Dutch)
1st Militia (Dutch)
2nd Militia (Dutch)
18th Militia (Dutch)
Netherlands Indian Brigade Anthing
5th Line (East Indies)
10th Jagers (West Indies)
11th Jagers (West Indies)
Flanquer Battalion
1 Battery Foot Artillery

Reserve

5th Division Picton
8th Brigade Kempt
28th Foot
32nd Foot
1st Battalion 79th Foot
1st Battalion 95th Foot
9th Brigade Pack
3rd Battalion 1st Foot
42nd Foot
44th Foot
92nd Foot
5th Hanoverian Brigade Vincke
Gifhorn Landwehr Battalion
Hameln Landwehr Battalion
Hildesheim Landwehr Battalion
Peine Landwehr Battalion
1 Battery of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

6th Division Lambert
10th Brigade Brooke
1st Battalion 4th Foot
1st Battalion 27th Foot
1st Battalion 40th Foot
1st Battalion 81st Foot (Left at Brussels as garrison)
4th Hanoverian Brigade Best
Verden Landwehr Battalion
Luneburg Landwehr Battalion
Munden Landwehr Battalion
Osterode Landwehr Battalion
2 Batteries of Foot Artillery
(1 did not arrive in time to serve in campaign)
Reserve Artillery Drummond
3 Batteries of Foot Artillery
Brunswick Corps Olfermann
Avantgarde Battalion
Light Brigade Buttlar
Lieb Battalion
1st Light Battalion
2nd Light Battalion
3rd Light Battalion
Line Brigade Specht
1st Line Battalion
2nd Line Battalion
3rd Line Battalion
Cavalry
2nd Brunswick Hussars
Uhlan Squadron
1 Battery of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery
Nassau Contingent von Kruse
1st Nassau Regiment

Cavalry Uxbridge

1st Brigade Somerset
1st Life Guards
2nd Life Guards
Royal Horse Guards
1st Dragoon Guards
2nd Brigade Ponsonby
1st Dragoons
2nd Dragoons
6th Dragoons
3rd Brigade Dornberg
23rd Light Dragoons
1st Light Dragoons KGL
2nd Light Dragoons KGL
4th Brigade Vandeleur
11th Light Dragoons
12th Light Dragoons
16th Light Dragoons
5th Brigade Grant
7th Hussars
15th Hussars
2nd Hussars KGL
(2nd Hussars KGL remained near Courtrai throughout the campaign)
6th Brigade Vivian
10th Hussars
18th Hussars
1st Hussars KGL
7th Brigade Arenschildt
13th Light Dragoons
3rd Hussars KGL
1st Hanoverian Brigade Estorff
Prince Regent’s Hussars
Bremen & Verden Hussars
Duke of Cumberland’s Hussars
1st Netherlands Brigade Trip
1st Carabiniers (Dutch)
2nd Carabiniers (Belgian)
3rd Carabiniers (Dutch)
2nd Netherlands Brigade de Ghigny
4th Light Dragoons (Dutch)
8th Hussars (Belgian
3rd Netherlands Brigade van Merlen
5th Light Dragoons (Belgian)
6th Hussars (Dutch)
6 Horse Artillery Batteries and 2 Dutch Half Batteries of Horse Artillery

Blucher’s Prussian Army 48,000 approx

I Army Corps Ziethen

1st Brigade Steinmetz
12th Regiment
24th Regiment
1st Westphalian Landwehr
1st Hussars
1 Battery of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery
2nd Brigade Pirch
6th Regiment
28th Regiment
2nd Westphalian Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
3rd Brigade Jagow
7th Regiment
29th Regiment
3rd Westphalian Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
4th Brigade Henckel
19th Regiment
4th Westphalian Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
Cavalry Roeder
1st Brigade Tresckow
5th Dragoons
2nd Dragoons
3rd Uhlans
1 Battery of Horse Artillery
2nd Brigade Lutzow
6th Uhlans
1st Kurmark Landwehr
2nd Kurmark Landwehr
1st Westphalian Landwehr
Reserve Artillery
5 Batteries of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery

II Corps Pirch

5th Brigade Tippelkirch
2nd Regiment
25th Regiment
5th Westphalian Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
6th Brigade Krafft
9th Regiment
26th Regiment
1st Elbe Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
7th Brigade Brause
14th Regiment
22nd Regiment
2nd Elbe Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
8th Brigade Bose
21st Regiment
23rd Regiment
3rd Elbe Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
Cavalry Jurgass
1st Brigade Thumen
1st Dragoons
6th Dragoons
2nd Uhlans
2nd Brigade Sohr
3rd Hussars
5th Hussars
11th Hussars
3rd Brigade Schulenberg
5th Kurmark Landwehr
6th Kurmark Landwehr
Elbe Landwehr
1 Battery of Horse Artillery
Reserve Artillery
3 Batteries of Foot Artillery and 2 Batteries of Horse Artillery

III Corps Thielmann

9th Brigade Borcke
8th Regiment
30th Regiment
1st Kurmark Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
10th Brigade Kemphen
27th Regiment
2nd Kurmark Landwehr
1 Battery Foot Artillery
11th Brigade Luck
3rd Kurmark Landwehr
4th Kurmark Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
12th Brigade Stulpnagel
31st Regiment
5th Kurmark Landwehr
6th Kurmark Landwehr
Cavalry Hobe
1st Brigade Marwitz
7th Uhlans
8th Uhlans
2nd Brigade Lottum
7th Dragoons
9th Hussars
5th Uhlans
3rd Kurmark Landwehr
6th Kurmark Landwehr
(Two squadrons of 3rd and 6th Kurmark Landwehr were attached to each infantry brigade of the corps)
1 Battery of Horse Artillery
Reserve Artillery
1 Battery of Foot Artillery and 2 Batteries of Horse Artillery

IV Corps Bulow

13th Brigade Hake
10th Regiment
2nd Neumark Landwehr
3rd Neumark Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
14th Brigade Ryssel
11th Regiment
1st Pomeranian Landwehr
2nd Pomeranian Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
15th Brigade Losthin
18th Regiment
3rd Silesian Landwehr
4th Silesian Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery
16th Brigade Hiller
15th Regiment
1st Silesian Landwehr
2nd Silesian Landwehr
1 Battery of Foot Artillery

Cavalry Prince Wilhelm
1st Brigade Schwerin
6th Hussars
10th Hussars
1st Uhlans
2nd Brigade Watzdorff
8th Hussars
3rd Brigade Sydow
1st Neumark Landwehr
2nd Neumark Landwehr
1st Pomeranian Landwehr
2nd Pomeranian Landwehr
1st Silesian Landwehr
2nd Silesian Landwehr
3rd Silesian Landwehr
(Two squadrons of 2nd and 3rd Silesian Landwehr were attached to each infantry brigade of the corps)
2 Batteries of Horse Artillery
Reserve Artillery
4 Batteries of Foot Artillery and 1 Battery of Horse Artillery